Foods Rich in FODMAP (to be avoided)
1- High Fructose
The capacity at which fructose is absorbed ranges from 15-50 g per day with greatest absorption occurring when glucose and fructose are administered in equal amount
Apple, pears, watermelon, honey, fruit juice, dried fruits, high fructose corn syrup, figs, plums, dates, papaya, commercial foods and soft drinks with added high fructose corn syrup. Studies have shown that fructose and sorbitol ingested together cause worsening of IBS symptoms
Stone fruits plum, cherries, avocado, mushroom, cauliflower, sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, isomalto)
Apple, pear, peach and prune are high in sorbitol.
Sugar free desserts, cookies, syrup and gums have sorbitol.
Berries have xylitol.
After ingestion of 12.5 gm of lactulose up to 8 fold gas production has been observed in normal individuals.
Most artificial sweeteners contain Polyols such as mannitol, xylitol, or sorbitol. Substances such as toothpaste, mints, sugar-free gum, and many liquid cough/cold and pain relief preparations have Polyols . Patient with small bowel bacterial overgrowth appear to be even more sensitive to Polyol containing foods.
3- Fructans and Galactans
Wheat, rye, garlic, onion, artichoke,asparagus, soy, leeks, legume beans, peas, lentils, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, chicory root, tequila is made from fermentation of lanolin, soluble fibers inulin and maltodexterin, polydextrose made from glucose plus sorbitol added as sweetener to some food and drinks, diet sodas, diet candies, and sweetened sugar free foods and beverages.
Inulin is a polysaccharide, belongs to a class of soluble fibers known as Fructans, found in roots or rhizomes as a means of storing energy, non digestible carb, it feels like fat and is chewy. Many application in food industry. Garlic bulb has a lot of it.
Sugar alcohols sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, isomalto, and hydrogenated starch hydrolisate have calorie but less than sugar. The part that does not get absorbed has laxative effect.
Soluble fibers is found in starches and is the chemical bond that join its individual sugar units and no enzyme in human digestive tract to digest it. They are good for IBS patients with diarrhea or constipation, therefore safe food for IBS patients; rice, pasta and noodles, oatmeal, barley, soy, potato, yam, turnip, beets, squash, pumpkins, mushroom, avocado, bananas, apple sauce, mango, papayas.
Milk (cow, goat, sheep), yogurt, soft cheeses( ricotta, cottage), ice cream, pizza, butter, most beers, prepared soups and sauces, some chewing gums and anti-gas products.
5- Individuals with salicylate sensitivity: may have nausea, vomiting, stomach bloating, pain and diarrhea.
Some reports indicates that up to 70% of IBS patients may be salicylates sensitive. 20% have asthma and 60% may have itchy rashes, headache and migraine.
High in salicylate fruits and vegetables: all dried fruits, apricot, avocado, blackberry, blueberry, boisenberry , cherries, cranberry, date, grape, goave, orange, pineapple, plum, prune, raisin, raspberry, rock melon, strawberry, tangelo, tangerine.
Vegetables very high in salicylate: peppers, radish and tomato.